INSTITUTIONALISM OF THE ORGANIZATIONS
The international activities of universities dramatically expanded in volume, scope, and complexity during the past two decades. These activities range from traditional study-abroad programs, allowing students to learn about other cultures, to providing access to higher education in countries where local institutions cannot meet the demand. Other activities stress upgrading the international perspectives and skills of students, enhancing foreign language programs, and providing crosscultural understanding.
Internationalization is often confused with globalization (Altbach, 2004). defines that globalization as the economic, political, and societal forces pushing 21st century higher education toward greater international involvement. Global capital has, for the first time, heavily invested in knowledge industries worldwide, including higher education and advanced training. This investment reflects the emergence of the “knowledge society,” the rise of the service sector, and the dependence of many societies on knowledge products and highly educated personnel for economic growth (Altbach and Knight, 2007).
Institutional approaches to organization studies focus attention on the relationships among organizations behavior and the fields in which they operate, highlighting in particular the role of rational formal structures in enabling and constraining organizational behaviour. A key contribution of institutional studies has been the development of strong accounts of the processes through which institutions govern action. This has been accomplished in part through theoretical statements which have delineated key sets of concepts and relationships that tie institutional structures and logics to organizational forms conducted (Meyer and Rowan 1977; DiMaggio and Powell 1983; Greenwood and Hinings 1996).
These leadership functions are outlined and included as: Informational Roles, Interpersonal and Decisional In short, our conception of leadership comprises the following basic assumptions: leadership is concerned with fostering change; leadership is inherently value-based; all people are potential leaders; leadership is a group process. Transforming existing organizations for an uncertain, competitive environment and for such innovative practices as e-learning requires a systemic approach encompassing many organizational dimensions. It requires a vision of what higher education will look like in the future, and a clear plan and methodology for transforming the institution to achieve this vision.
Moreover, the transition depends not only on the efficiency of the transformation process itself but also on the commitment and entrepreneurial capacities of the senior and middle managers and staff. This may be particularly difficult for the traditional single-mode university; more accustomed with face-to-face contexts and client groups within readily identifiable local catchments. (Ulukan, 2005).
Internationalisation, on the other hand, is viewed as a process that blends intercultural international dimensions into different academic activities, such as teaching, learning, and research, into the purpose and functions of higher education. The common feature in the narratives that define open distance learning and internationalisation is the blending of university services to achieve specific outcomes. (Msweli, 2012).
Transformative change requires that we find ways to restore trust. Astin and Astin believe that by cultivating the leadership values and principles begin to build trust through collaboration. Trust, in turn, enables colleagues to effect a shared purpose and a meaningful division of labor.
In sum, each one of us has the power and the opportunity to begin the conversation and to set the process in motion, and each of us can identify peers and colleagues who can participate in collective work around the practice of transformative leadership. While the model of transformative leadership that we have proposed is in many respects an idealized one, none of its principles is beyond the capabilities of any member of the academic community. Indeed, the major obstacle to embracing and practicing these principles is not a lack of resources but rather our own limiting beliefs about ourselves, our colleagues, and our institutions.
THE ROLE OF NGO’s IN EDUCATION
NGOs are difficult to define and classify due to the term’s inconsistent use. To attempt a classification of NGOs requires a framework that includes the orientation and the organization's level of operation. An NGO's orientation refers to the type of activities an organization takes on. These activities might include environmental, development, or advocacy work. An NGO's level of operation indicates the scale at which an organization works on, like the difference in work between an international NGO and community or national NGO. (http://www.enotes.com/topic/Non-governmental_organization) One of the earliest mentions of the term "NGO" was in 1945, when the UN was created. The UN introduced the term "NGO" to distinguish between the participation of international private organizations and intergovernmental specialized agencies. According to the UN, all kinds of private organizations that are independent from government control can be recognized as "NGOs." "NGOs" cannot seek to diminish a nation's government in the shape of an opposing political party; NGOs also need to be non-criminal and non-profit.
Rapid development of the non-governmental sector occurred in western countries as a result of the processes of restructuring of the welfare state. Further globalization of that process occurred after the fall of the communist system and was an important part of the Washington consensus.
Globalization during the 20th century gave rise to the importance of NGOs. Many problems could not be solved within a nation.International treaties and international organizations such as the World Trade Organization were centred mainly on the interests of capitalist enterprises. In an attempt to counterbalance this trend, NGOs have developed to emphasize humanitarian issues,developmental aid and sustainable development
Before the restoration of democracy, NGOs were not allowed to be registered and operate. After reestablishment of democracy NGOs could play an effective role in many people oriented programs such as health, family planning, environment, formal and non-formal education. (http://www.enotes.com/topic/Non-governmental_organization)
At present NGOs are playing a very important role to provide helpful services to the population in rural areas. Similarly it has done remarkable work in the field of literacy, family planning, population, environmental conservation and development of formal and non-formal education. Since 1950s, many many educational institutions such as schools and colleges are opening. But still more than 50 percent of the adult population is stil illiterate in the world. It is a fact that Education For All (EFA) could not be provided through schools alone. (Literacy Watch Bulletin April,2000 No.15)
Many scholars argue that globalization, consisting of increased movement of people and goods across international borders, is contributing to the weakening of the nation-state because of the emergence of global regulatory organizations, global mass media, and the aforementioned global flow of populations.
For example, the role of NGOs in distance education literacy model mentioned for the management and administration of literacy centres at the local level came under discussion. Moreover, it was also agreed that NGOs can also be involved in the training of instructors and the supervisors along with Institute of Mass Education (IME) and Regional Directorates (RDs). Taking these advantages into consideration; problems of educational globalization have to be overcome, such as bringing regulations, standards like the accreditation and quality issues, showing sensitivity to ethical concerns and better motivating the e-learners (Mason, 2003).
DISTANCE EDUCATION IN THE GLOBALIZATION
Despite the numerous and volatile changes we have undergone as a society and civilization, education still remains the most powerful force for individual and collective transformation.
Change dominates our world and education is a major vehicle for initiating, managing, and sustaining or stabilizing our environments affected by change. It is through educational value that we develop the understanding and knowledge to effectively craft strategies for leading change (Kotter, 1996).
Globalization and the revolution in technological communications are major forces of change in higher education. This environment, when coupled with the needs of adult learners and the rising costs of tuition at traditional and distance colleges and universities, has stimulated the emergence of for- profit, degree-granting higher education in the United States. Paper which is entitled Globalization and the Emergence of For-Profit Higher Education examines the growth of for-profit higher education, provides a cost/profit analysis, and gives examples of for-profit universities that are increasing international in scope and concludes with a discussion of the implications of these developments for colleges and universities (Morey, 2004:131).
Globalization and effects of ICT specifically the Internet are criticized for cultural monopolization due to hegemony of certain states mainly the US and the UK. The critics have certain arguments that have to be taken seriously in the name of democracy and equal rights of peoples. Because ICT are an important political mean and education can be a powerful political tool that can be used for both assimilations and/or for developing societies that are in need of such opportunities. Globalization has affected many areas of society and will continue to shape the future of education and content delivery indefinitely. The impact of globalization has led to exceedingly higher enrollments for many universities and colleges. It has become increasingly apparent that individuals need to consistently learn new skills in order to remain employed and competitive in a knowledge and digital economy.
Global web-based learning models are spreading mainly developing countries such as the US, the UK, Canada, Australia and Europe; they influence the trends, causing international relations (IR) to be influential in managerial decisions and institutional structures of cooperation. International education necessitates multidisciplinary approaches to construct better contexts for learning. In this way, technology can be a better tool in the hands of the academicians. Social constructivist theories of IR and education well support and explain the increasing magnitude of international cooperation in distance education. This collaboration in education via the utilization of the ICT is a good model of socially shared and learned common values; leading to further institutionalization of cooperation.
Distance learning has become a major force by which individuals all over the world are acquiring the necessary training, skills, and education required to enter the job market. This has led to an unprecedented growth in all aspects of the distance learning industry, from the number and types of schools to the variety of technology and programs being offered.
This teaching and learning modality makes time and space the regulating variables between teachers and students located anywhere, yet interacting through powerful and speedy information and communication technology systems and processors.
On the other hand one of the major developments in the field of education in Africa 20th Century, apart from the taking over by Africans of the running of their education systems from departing colonialists, has been the relative growth of distance education.Technologies have contributed to increasing use of the Internet in higher education. To remain competitive, educational institutions are pressured to embrace DE. Distance learning has changed dramatically since the 1990s to become a dominant part of the landscape of the higher education global industry of the 21st century. Today we have mega-distance learning corporations, colleges, and universities operating on all continents and offering training, continuing education, and academic degree programs in various fields.
Distance learning opportunities respond effectively to the demands of individuals in the fast-paced globally competitive world of the 21st century. In this environment, administrators, teachers, and learners must attend to multiple tasks and responsibilities in personal and professional lives while providing and pursuing education. Consequently, programs are instituted without adequate consideration of stakeholder participation. To effectively accommodate new technologies, leaders must evaluate and address possible challenges. Faculty support has been identified as influencing DE effectiveness. Therefore, for programs to be successful, their buy-in is required.
Innovation is more than being creative or coming up with ideas. It is the ability to do things differently, which generates change and pioneers new paradigms. Innovation is about coming up with new ideas, products, collaborations, services and solutions that can be implemented and used. According to a study conducted by IBM’s Global Business Services (2006), innovation is vital to growth and sustainability in the current era of rapid change and globalization. Innovation has become essential to the success of individuals as well as new and existing organizations. Innovation is not a new or mystical concept. An organization should have a unique vision as well as a unique innovation strategy. Innovation strategy should match the culture of an organization. Educational leaders, including administrators, instructors and staff members, must integrate innovation into their organizations, programs and courses to grow and maintain enrollments and programs. Further, students must be taught the importance of innovation and have the opportunity to innovate in educational settings. Effectively address these problems and challenges will significantly shape the future of online or virtual distance education.
THE LEADERSHIP ROLES OF
DE/DISTANCE LEARNING ASSOCIATIONS
Similar to traditional educational administrators, distance education/learning associations DLAs or leaders must meet a variety of problems and challenges in ensuring the effective and efficient operation of distance learning schools. Valentine (2002) has identified five major problems and challenges to distance learning that administrators must deal with: quality of instruction, cost effectiveness, misuse of technology, role of technicians, and problems with equipment. One of the greatest and most complex of the problems and challenges faced by distance learning administrators is that of quality assurance in terms of the value and quality of distance learning programs. This mainly stems from the long-standing debate regarding traditional versus distance education programs and schools. The key problems-challenges among these five factors seem to be the quality of instruction, misuse of technology, and costs effectiveness, and distance learning administrators can follow several recommendations in order to deal effectively with these issues
The roles and goals of DE associations need to be clear in order to get some sense of their views about the associational umbrella in general. International cooperation in DE is a very popular phenomenon today. International collaboration and integration initiatives have increased in the framework of organizational cooperation at different levels and in different issue areas. The European Union (EU) and cooperation in its different policy areas: projects for both member and non-member states are examples of how ICT can ease and facilitate interactions (Wendt, 1994: 384).
One of these policy areas is quality assurance and accreditation of DE. Daniel (2006) states that with the phenomenal proliferation of national and cross-border open and distance learning (ODL) across the world, quality matters more than ever. Due to international student mobility, emergence of cross-border universities and mobility of services in a globalized economy, accreditation practices have become one of the major issues in bilateral or multilateral relations of nations in the world (YOK, 2007). In this regard, European Association of Distance Teaching Universities (EADTU) developed E-xcellence criteria for e-learning programs in 2009 within a project supported by the European Commission. Institutions or programs are E-xcellence Quality Label is provided to the institutions or programs applying and completing the process successfully (http://www.eadtu.nl/e-xcellencelabel). Similarly, European Foundation for Quality in E-Learning (EFQUEL) developed criteria within UNIQUE Project and gives accreditation for e-learning.
Quality assurance, accreditation, licensing and recognition of qualifications are crucial issues for both the countries both importing and exporting educational services. Although some countries regulated these educational activities by law, the problem of recognition has not been solved exactly yet. Moreover, the majority of the existing regulations mostly included face-to-face education. Especially developing countries are mainly importers and these countries express their concerns about the liberalization of trade and cross-border movement of educational activities due to not having adequate legal regulations (Hope, 2005; Knight, 2006).
In this context, some researchers argue that accreditation practices can be coordinated better within regional networks and international activities which will ease processes regarding recognition of diplomas and qualifications as in the Bologna Process (Hall, 2003; Lopez-Segrera, 2007). In sum, quality assurance, accreditation and mutual recognition of degrees and diplomas are among the crucial issues that the international distance education associations should focus on (Kocdar, 2011). Accreditation and approval that focus on assessment and evaluation by external parties including private and state agencies usually guarantee some significant levels of quality.
Thus, an effective distance learning association should be aware of this and make curriculum planning and quality assurance important factors. This is where a responsibility over institutional planning and effectiveness comes into play. Despite the virtual side of distance learning, administrators still need to carry out the managerial role of controlling and monitoring for standards, whether that standard is in reference to programs, curriculum, or instructors. They need to work hard, not only in obtaining, but also maintaining relevant state and agency approval for programs. (http://www.westga.edu/~distance/ojdla/spring141/McFarlane141.html)
This requires DLAs to keep abreast of new developments in the fields. This can be accomplished by being members of distance learning organizations and agencies such as the Distance Education and Training Council (DETC), United States Distance Learning Association (USDLA), European Distance Learning Association (EDLA), EDEN, EADTU, North Amarica ICDE, Latin America ABED, Africa ACDE, Australia ODLAA, New Zeland DEANZ, Far Asia AAOU, Southeast Asian Ministers of Education Organisation Regional Open Learning Centre-SEAMOLEC among others.
Additionally, effective DLAs will view themselves as part of a global trend in education and seek to be actively visible and participating subscribers and members in conferences in the industry, and read and subscribe to academic and professional journals and magazines. Training and education are also important in dealing with these problems and challenges as DLAs further their knowledge of distance learning technologies and their leadership skills.
DLAs must embrace their managerial-leadership roles that are informational, interpersonal, and decisional (Mintzberg, 1973). They manage people, systems, and processes and should take a true systems thinking approach in the distance learning. Mintzberg’s model is further broken down into ten leadership responsibilities or functions with activities that DLAs can effectively apply to their duties and responsibilities. DLAs can best ensure quality of instruction by having the right people, administrator, instructional and technology experts, right technology, quality and well-designed and organized curriculum, appropriate materials, textbooks and other media sources.
Effective DLAs are happy to represent their schools and programs at conferences, through media and community contact, and they identify new opportunities and projects for growth and success that will positively impact all members of the organization in their capacities as entrepreneurs, disturbance handlers, resource allocators, and negotiators (http://www.westga.edu/~distance/ojdla/spring141/McFarlane141.html) Effective DLAs will understand and apply the guidelines of exemplary leadership as they seek to inspire a shared vision within the organization, unit or department. They must model the way by being examples of effective leaders and managers, and challenge others to think and work hard.
Leaders create and convey compelling images of how our reach is much less than our potential grasp; they redefine people's paradigms about what is possible. In contrast, competent managers are adept at organizing operations so that an institution's efficiency in accomplishing plans is optimized. This is a vital task often neglected by leaders who do not understand management, to their later regret, for good administration involves both envisioning and operationalizing.
The model reveals opportunities for leaders and managers in these areas to assert themselves in new ways throughout the organization. Significant professional growth and development on their part will be required to understand how their practices merge and blend with other domains and to establish their credibility in those domains (Moroney, 2007).
MAJOR ASSOCIATIONS IN DISTANCE EDUCATION AND
OPEN AND DISTANCE LEARNING (ODL) AROUND THE WORLD
Major professional associations and organisations in distance education (DE) and open and distance learning (ODL) are mentioned below. International organisations include the:
1. Commonwealth of Learning (COL);
2. International Council for Open and Distance Education (ICDE); and
3. United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO).
Regional organisations are include the:
4. African Distance Learning Association (ADLA);
5. African Council of distance education (ACDE)
6. Asian Association of Open Universities (AAOU);
7. Canadian Association for Distance Education (CADE);
8. European Association of Distance Teaching Universities (EADTU);
9. Open and Distance Learning Association of Australia (ODLAA);
10. Southeast Asian Ministers of Education Organisation Regional Open Learning Center (SEAMOLEC);
11. United States Distance Learning Association (USDLA).
12. Brazilian Association for Distance Education (ABED)
WHAT IS UDEEEWANA? “as the”
UDEEEWANA is suggested and established as the association for the region Eastern Europe, Scandinavia, Baltics, Turkics, Cacousian, Middle East, Russia, Arab Peninsula and North Africa which are included the countries such as Algeria, Azarbaijan, Belarus, Bulgaria, Egypt, Estonia, Finland, Greece, Gorgia, Jordan, Hungary, Iraq, Iran, Israel, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Macedonia, Moldova, Mogolia, Morocco, Norway, Oman, Palestine, Poland, Romania, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden, Syria, Tajikistan, Tunisia, Turkmenistan, Turkey, Ukraine, United Arab Emirates, Uzbekistan and so on.
WHY UDEEEEWANA IS NEEDED
It is mentioned in the book which is titled as “eLearning Practice…. 2010, that E-Learning offers many opportunities for individuals and institutions all over the world. Individuals can access to education they need almost anytime and anywhere they are ready to. Institutions are able to provide more cost effective training to their employees. E-learning context is very important. It is common to find educators who perceive e-learning as internet-only education that encourages a static and content-focused series of text pages on screen. While e-learning started in the early 1970s with mainframe computing, it really didn't take off until the advent of CD-ROMs and the World Wide Web. Multimedia CD-ROMs in the early 1990s allowed us to develop programs that had color, action, and interactivity. These were a major advance over text on monochrome screens that characterized educational computing in the 1980s.
The years of 1990s and 2000s a new learning landscape is a multichannel learning environment that can be seen as a “complex adaptive system”. For the most part, this environment is “self organizing” and because of that it is difficult to exactly predict how it is all going to turn out in the next five years.
There is also a trend seen in the transition from training to learning that leverages the power of the Internet to go beyond eLearning through knowledge management, competency management, and performance support and to HR processes like performance management, talent management, succession planning, and hiring. From the Web 2.0 to Web4.0 (and e-learning 2.0) Technologies are driven by collaboration. Today’s learning and education technology is developing with overwhelmingly what we guess for tomorrow. In those days eLearning technology application changed its structure by combining via new discussion technologies such as mLearning, tLearning and uLearning.
Multimedia on the internet, telecommunications, wireless applications, mobile devices, social network software, Web 2.0, Web 4.0 etc are radically redefining the way people obtain information and the way to learn. Policymakers, international organizations, higher education institutions and researchers in the field of education agree that Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) have the potential to stimulate international collaboration, to create flexible learning paths and to open the borders of the university.
Western and Eastern Asian nations are increasingly embracing e-learning in education and training, both within their classrooms and in distance education. E-transformation has been much slower in the education systems of the Eastern Europe, Nordic, Turkic, Middle East, Arab Pensula and North African countries. It is, therefore, considered timely to conduct an inquiry into the ways and extent of e-learning in these countries, the factors driving and constraining such developments, and how progress might be further encouraged. Searching the literature, it is possible to find reports, accounts, research findings and conference presentations on e-learning in these countries but many of these are in languages other than English. English language developed in collaboration with colleagues in these various countries and so will be a first and of international significance. Many of the institutions in the countries to be reviewed also make extensive use of traditional teaching and methods and media, so it will not consider for these countries only e-learning and mobile or m-learning in isolation but in blended or mixed-mode learning, both in classroom environments and in distance education. (Demiray et. al, 2010, p. lix-lxii).
A Map of the UDEEEWANA Region
UDEEEWANA is mentioning the distance education practices in Turkey, and will examine and discuss the role of leadership which should be undertaken by Turkey patronage in the region of Eastern Europe, the Middle East, and North Africa regions countries.
It is a well-known fact that the international distance education organizations in the world are not well organized and functional in this area or for the regional distance education institutions.To fill this gap, it will be argued that Turkey might have a leadership role in the distance education field in the region and can organize the practices of the regional countries in academy and practice. Based on this argument, the structure of the potential organization and the regulation of the organization will be discussed. And also, the draft of the constitution of the recommended association will be presented, which will be regulated and redesigned in accordance with the others.
Thanks to this council, nearly 50 countries will have the chance to introduce their distance education practices to the world.
These countries can use UDEEEWANA to discuss practical and scientific issues via conferences or journals, and they can even establish sub-distance education associations in their region or in their countries. Some of those countries are Algeria, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Bulgaria, Egypt, Estonia, Finland, Greece, Georgia, Jordan, Hungary, Iraq, Iran, Israel, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Macedonia, Moldova, Morocco, Norway, Oman, Palestine, Poland, Romania, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden, Syria, Tajikistan, Tunisia, Turkmenistan, Turkey, Ukraine, United Arab Emirates, Uzbekistan and so on.
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